Major programming languages of today’s era and their history

A programming language is a formal language comprising a set of strings that produce various kinds of machine code output. Programming languages are one kind of computer language, and are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.

Most programming languages consist of instructions for computers. There are programmable machines that use a set of specific instructions, rather than general programming languages. Since the early 1800s, programs have been used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms, music boxes and player pianos. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, and more are being created every year. But JavaScript has surpassed other programming languages and has emerged as the most widespread programming language by a wide margin. There are approximately 16.5 million developers using it globally today, data from Slashdata’s latest State of Developer Nation report showed. Nearly 4 million developers joined the community in this year, which is the highest growth ever among all languages. Out of which more than 2.5 million developers joined in the last six months alone.

JavaScript: JavaScript is a text-based programming language used both on the client-side and on the server-side, allowing web pages to be interactive. Here HTML and CSS are languages that provide structure and style to web pages. JavaScript provides interactive elements to web pages that engage a user. Common examples of JavaScript include the search box on Amazon, a news recap video embedded in The New York Times, or something we use every day like a fresh Twitter feed. The report showed that even in software areas where JavaScript is not among developers’ top choices, such as data science or embedded development, nearly a quarter of developers use it in their projects. JavaScript History The mid-1990s was a pivotal time for the Internet. Major players such as Netscape and Microsoft were in the midst of browser wars, with Netscape’s Navigator and Microsoft’s Internet Explorer facing each other. In September 1995, a Netscape programmer named Brandon Eich developed a new scripting language in just 10 days. It was originally named Mocha, but soon became LiveScript and later JavaScript. Apart from JavaScript, there are other very famous programming languages available as well.

Python: Python is also a type of computer programming language that is often used to create websites and software, automate tasks, and perform data analysis. Python is a general-purpose language, which means it can be used to create a wide variety of different programs and is not specific to any one problem. This versatility coupled with its beginner-friendliness has made it one of the most commonly used programming languages today. Python ranks second with 11.3 million users, after adding 2.3 million net new developers over the past 12 months. That’s a growth rate of 25 percent, making it one of the largest programming language communities of all time with over 7 million users. The rise of data science and machine learning (ML) is an obvious factor in the popularity of Python. More than 70 percent of ML developers and data scientists report using Python.

 

Python History and Versions

Python laid its foundation in the late 1980s. The implementation of Python was started in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at the CWI in the Netherlands. In February 1991, Guido Van Rossum published the code (version 0.9.0) on Alt. In 1994, Python 1.0 was launched with new features like Lambda, Filter, Reduce, and Map. In addition, Python 2.0 added new features like list comprehension, garbage collection system. On 3 December 2008, Python 3.0 (also known as “Py3K”) was released. It was created to correct a fundamental flaw in the language. The ABC programming language is said to be the predecessor of the Python language, capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.

Kotlin: Kotlin is a general-purpose, free, open-source, statically typed practical programming language initially designed for the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) and Android that provides object-oriented and functional programming features. It focuses on interoperability, clarity, security and tooling support.

Kotlin is consistently recognized as a rising star among programming languages, doubling the audience size in the past three years, the report said. This trend is largely attributed to Google’s decision to make Kotlin its preferred language for Android development. Kotlin is currently the third most popular language in mobile development after JavaScript and Java.

Kotlin History

In July 2011, JetBrains unveiled Kotlin, a new language project for the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). The name comes from Kotlin Island. Kotlin was released on 15 February 2016 and is considered the first officially stable release. At Google I/O 2017, Google announced first-class support for Kotlin on Android. In 2019, Google announced that the Kotlin programming language is now its preferred language for Android app developers.

Rust: Rust is a multi-paradigm, high-level, general-purpose programming language designed for performance and security, especially secure concurrency. Rust is syntactically similar to C++, but can guarantee memory safety by using a borrow checker to validate references. Rust achieves memory protection without garbage collection.

Rust has expanded faster than any other language in the past 24 months, nearly tripling in size, from just 0.4 million developers in Q3 2019 to 1.1 million in Q3 2021. According to SlashData, Rust is used mostly in embedded software projects, but also in AR/VR development, typically to implement low-level core logic for AR/VR applications.

History of rust

Rust began as a side project of Graydon Hoare, a Mozilla employee. Mozilla saw the potential of the new language and began sponsoring it in 2010 before revealing it to the world. According to Hoare, a possible source of the name is rust fungus. This has caused Rust programmers to adopt “Rustician” as their moniker of choice.

Despite its relative youth, Rust continues to grow into a range of popular programming languages. While it was ranked 33rd in July 2019, by July 2020 it had risen to the 18th position in the TIOBE Programming Community Index. Similarly, according to the Stack Overflow Developer Survey, Rust has been the “most liked” language since 2016.


(EW correspondent)