Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay was a philosopher, sociologist, economist, and politician. The philosophy presented by him is called ‘Integral Humanism’. The aim of which was to present such an ‘indigenous socio-economic model’ in which every person of the entire nation can be the center of development. Integral humanism means a broader view of India as a nation by going much beyond the country and treating its inhabitants not as citizens but as members of the family. If the height of humanity has been established in any political theory, then it’s Pandit Deendayal Ji Upadhyay’s theory of Integral Humanism!
Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay opposed both Western ‘capitalist individualism’ and ‘Marxist socialism’ but welcomed modern technology and Western science. He favored a path between capitalism and socialism in which the merits of both the systems are present but they do not have the demerits of excess and isolation. According to Upadhyay, the capitalist and socialist ideologies consider only the needs of the human body and mind, so they are based on materialistic objectives, while spiritual development is also necessary for the overall development of human beings. Also, he envisioned a classless, casteless, and conflict-free social system.
Similarly, religion is the basic effort, but three other efforts are complementary and nourishing to each other. If one wants to do business, then one has to follow the various characteristics of Dharma like good conduct, restraint, renunciation, penance, anger, forgiveness, patience, truth, etc. Money cannot be earned without these qualities. The people of the West doing business said that honesty is the best policy, that is, truthfulness is the best policy. According to Indian thought, Honesty is not a policy but a principle i.e. Integrity is not a policy for us but a principle. According to Pandit Deendayal ji, religion is important but it should not be forgotten that religion does not survive in the absence of meaning. There comes a subhashita – “Bubhukshitaru kin na karoti papam, Ksheena janaru nishkarunaru bhavanti”. That means that whoever is hungry can sin. A sage-like Vishwamitra, suffering from hunger, had eaten the dog’s leftover meat by stealing it in the house of the Chandala to bear the body. Here in our order, it has been said that there should be no lack of meaning because it is a sign of religion. Similarly, the absence of punishment i.e. anarchy is also harmful to religion. When the meaning of the individual and the society becomes an end instead of a means and all the virtues of life are obtained from the meaning itself, then the effect of meaning arises and for the accumulation of meaning, the person commits various sins. Similarly, the person who has more money is more likely to become luxuriant.
In the West, the life of the individual is considered piece by piece, whereas, in Indian thought, the life of the individual is considered as a whole. According to Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay, in our contemplation, the purpose of developing the body, mind, intellect, and soul of a person has been kept. There is a system to eradicate all his hunger, but it has been kept in mind that in an attempt to eliminate one hunger, do not create another hunger and do not block the path of eradication of the other, so the four efforts have been considered as a composite. It is the imagination of the perfect human and the one who is both our adoration and the means of worship. Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay has emphasized the concept of integrated human beings in contrast to the fragmented concept of the West.
The current relevance of Integral Humanism-
Today a large population of the world is living in poverty. Many models of development were brought around the world but the results were not as expected. So the world is looking for a development model that is integrated and sustainable. Integral Humanism is one such philosophy that is integrated and sustainable. Integral Humanism aims at ensuring a dignified life for every human being by balancing the needs of the individual and society. It supports the sustainable consumption of natural resources so that those resources can be replenished. Integral humanism promotes not only political but also economic and social democracy and freedom. This principle encourages diversity, so it is most suitable for a diverse country like India. Integral Humanism aims at providing a dignified life to every human being and ‘Antyodaya’ i.e. to improve the life of the person at the lower strata of the society. Two dhotis, two kurtas, and two meals a day are my absolute necessity. What more do I need than this? In this sentence, the principle and philosophies of Deendayal Ji’s Integralism and Antyodaya can be easily understood. In the word Antyodaya, there is sympathy, there is sympathy, there is inspiration, there is sadhana. Deendayal ji used to say that unless the person standing in the last row rises, the rise of India is not possible. At the core of Antyodaya, Deendayal ji did not see any electoral gains as his life itself was inspired by Antyodaya. He believed in smelting his bones for the progress of society. There was no difference in his words and conduct. The meaning of Deendayal Ji’s Antyodaya was inspired by national labor. He considered national labor as the national religion. He was not in favor of service to any community or class but to the service of the entire nation. He believed that until we cannot bring the virtuous effect of Jahnavi (Seven Ganges), the wealth of monotony, hard work, equality, affluence, knowledge, happiness, and power, in the section of India surrounded by the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean, then our Bhagirath sadhana is complete. It Will not be done. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has taken many bold decisions in the direction of realizing the word Antyodaya with his poor-oriented schemes, the central government is running many public interest schemes. The dream of Deendayal Ji’s Antyodaya is slowly being realized under the Modi government. It would not be wrong to say that the philosophy of Integral Humanism and Antyodaya of Deendayal Upadhyay ji will always be relevant in a welfare state like India.